Manuscript - Wikipedia


manuscript writing paper

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A manuscript abbreviated MS for singular and MSS for plural was, traditionally, any document that is written by hand — or, manuscript writing paper, once practical typewriters became available, typewritten — as opposed to being mechanically printed or reproduced in some indirect or automated way. Manuscripts are not defined by their contents, which may combine writing with mathematical calculations, maps, explanatory figures or illustrations. Manuscripts may be in book form, scrolls or in codex format.

Illuminated manuscripts are enriched with pictures, border decorations, elaborately embossed initial letters or full-page illustrations. Before the invention of woodblock printing in China or by moveable type in a printing press in Europe, all written documents had to be both produced and reproduced by hand.

Historically, manuscripts were produced in form of scrolls volumen in Latin or books codexplural codices. Manuscripts were produced on vellum and other parchment, on papyrusand on paper. In Russia birch bark documents as old as from the 11th century have survived. In India, the palm leaf manuscript manuscript writing paper, with a distinctive long rectangular shape, was used from ancient times until the manuscript writing paper century.

Paper spread from China via the Islamic world manuscript writing paper Europe by the 14th century, and by the late 15th century had largely replaced parchment for many purposes. When Greek or Latin works were published, numerous professional copies were made simultaneously by scribes in a scriptoriumeach making a single copy from an original that was declaimed aloud. The oldest written manuscripts have been preserved by the perfect dryness of their Middle Eastern resting places, whether placed within sarcophagi in Egyptian tombs, or reused as mummy -wrappings, discarded in the middens of Oxyrhynchus or secreted for safe-keeping in jars and buried Nag Hammadi library or stored in dry caves Dead Sea scrolls.

Manuscripts in Tocharian languageswritten on palm leaves, survived in desert burials in the Tarim Basin of Central Asia. Volcanic ash preserved some of manuscript writing paper Roman library of the Villa of the Papyri in Herculaneum.

Ironically, manuscript writing paper, the manuscripts that were manuscript writing paper most carefully preserved in the libraries of antiquity are virtually all lost. Papyrus has a life of at most a century or two in relatively moist Italian or Greek conditions; only those works copied onto parchment, usually after the general conversion to Christianity, have survived, manuscript writing paper, and by no means all of those.

Originally, all books were in manuscript form. In China, and later other parts of East Asia, woodblock printing was used for books from about the 7th century. The earliest dated example is the Diamond Sutra of In the Islamic world and the West, all books were in manuscript until the introduction of movable type printing in about Private or government documents remained hand-written until the invention of the typewriter in the late 19th century.

Because of the likelihood of errors being introduced each time a manuscript was copied, manuscript writing paper, the filiation of different versions of the same text is a fundamental part of the study and criticism of all texts that have been manuscript writing paper in manuscript.

In Southeast Asiain the first millennium, documents of sufficiently great importance were inscribed on soft metallic sheets such as copperplatesoftened by refiner's fire and inscribed with a metal stylus. In manuscript writing paper Philippinesfor example, as early as AD, manuscript writing paper, specimen documents were not inscribed by stylus, but were punched much like the style of today's dot-matrix printers.

This type of document was rare compared to the usual leaves and bamboo staves that were inscribed. However, neither the leaves nor paper were as durable as the metal document in the hot, humid climate. In Burma manuscript writing paper, the kammavaca, Buddhist manuscripts, were inscribed on brass, copper or ivory sheets, and even on discarded monk robes folded and lacquered. In Italy some important Manuscript writing paper texts were similarly inscribed on thin gold plates: similar sheets have been discovered in Bulgaria.

Technically, these are all inscriptions rather than manuscripts. The study of the writing, or "hand" in surviving manuscripts is termed palaeography.

In the Western world, from the classical period through the early centuries of the Christian eramanuscripts were written without spaces between the words scriptio continuawhich makes manuscript writing paper especially hard for the untrained to read. Extant copies of these early manuscripts written in Greek or Latin and usually dating from the manuscript writing paper century to the 8th century, are classified according to their use of either all upper case or all lower case letters.

Hebrew manuscripts, such as the Dead Sea scrolls make no such differentiation. Manuscripts using all upper case letters are manuscript writing paper majusculethose using all lower case are called minuscule. Usually, the majuscule scripts such as uncial are written with much more care.

The scribe lifted his pen between each stroke, producing an unmistakable effect of regularity and formality. On the other hand, while minuscule scripts can be written with pen-lift, they may also be manuscript writing paperthat is, use little or no pen-lift. Manuscript writing paper the context of library sciencea manuscript is defined as any hand-written item in the collections of a library or an archive, manuscript writing paper.

For example, a library's collection of hand-written letters or diaries is considered a manuscript collection. Such manuscript collections are described in finding aids, similar to an index or table of contents to the collection, in accordance with national and international content standards such as DACS and ISAD G. In other contexts, however, the use of the term "manuscript" no longer necessarily means something that is hand-written. By analogy a typescript has been produced on a typewriter.

In book, manuscript writing paper, magazine, and music publishing, a manuscript is an original copy of a work written by an author or composer, which generally follows standardized typographic and formatting rules.

The staff paper commonly used for handwritten music is, for this reason, often called "manuscript paper". In film and theatre, a manuscript, or script for short, is an author's or dramatist's text, used by a theatre company or film crew during the production of the work's performance or filming.

More specifically, a motion picture manuscript is called a screenplay; a television manuscript, a teleplay; a manuscript for the theatre, a stage play; and a manuscript for audio-only performance is often called a radio play, even when the recorded performance is disseminated via non-radio means.

In insurance, a manuscript policy is one that is negotiated between the insurer and the policyholder, as opposed to an off-the-shelf form supplied by the insurer. Most surviving pre-modern manuscripts use the codex format as in a modern bookwhich manuscript writing paper replaced the scroll by Late Antiquity.

Parchment or vellummanuscript writing paper, as the best type of parchment is known, had also replaced papyruswhich was not nearly so long lived and has survived to the present only in the extremely dry conditions of Egyptalthough it was widely used across the Roman world. With all skins, the quality of the finished product is based manuscript writing paper how much preparation and skill was put into turning the skin into parchment. Parchment made from calf or sheep was the most common in Northern Europe, while civilizations in Southern Europe preferred goatskin.

If it is yellow, greasy or in some cases shiny, then it was made from sheepskin. For modern parchment makers and calligraphers, and apparently often in the past, the terms parchment and vellum are used based on the different degrees of quality, preparation and thickness, and not according to which animal the skin came from, and because of this, manuscript writing paper, the more neutral term "membrane" is often used by modern academics, especially where the animal has not been established by testing.

Because they are books, pre-modern manuscripts are best described using bibliographic rather than archival standards. From ancient texts to medieval maps, anything written down for study would have been done with manuscripts. Some of the most common genres were bibles, religious commentaries, philosophy, manuscript writing paper, law and government texts.

Along with the Bible came scores of commentaries. Commentaries were written in volumes, with some focusing on just single pages of scripture. Across Europe, there were universities that prided themselves on their biblical knowledge. Along with universities, certain cities also had their own celebrities of biblical knowledge during the medieval period. A book of hours is a type of devotional text which was widely popular during the Middle Ages.

They are the most common type of surviving medieval illuminated manuscripts. Each book of hours contain a similar collection of texts, prayersand psalms but decoration can vary between each and each example. Many have minimal illumination, often restricted to ornamented initialsbut books of hours made for wealthier patrons can be extremely extravagant with full-page miniatures.

These books were used for owners to recite prayers privately eight different times, manuscript writing paper, or hours, of the day. Along with Bibles, large numbers of manuscripts made in the Middle Ages were revieved in Church [ clarification needed ], manuscript writing paper. Due to the complex church system of rituals and worship these books were the most elegantly written and finely decorated of all medieval manuscripts.

Liturgical books usually came in two varieties. Those used during mass and those for divine office. Most liturgical books came with a calendar in the front.

This served as a quick reference point for important dates in Jesus' life and to tell church officials which saints were to be honored and on what day. The format of the liturgical calendar was as follows:. Almost all medieval calendars give each day's date according to the Roman method of manuscript writing paper time. The Ides fell on the thirteenth in those months in which the Nones fell on the fifth, and the fifteenth in the manuscript writing paper four months.

All other days were dated by the number of days by which they preceded one of those fixed points. Merovingian scriptor "Luxeuil minuscule", manuscript writing paper, is named after an abbey in Western France, the Luxeuil Abbeyfounded by the Irish missionary St Columba ca.

It was used in the Holy Roman Empire between approximately and Codices, classical and Christian texts, and educational material were written in Carolingian minuscule throughout the Carolingian Renaissance. The script developed into blackletter and became obsolete, manuscript writing paper, though its revival in the Italian renaissance forms the basis of more recent scripts. Caroline Minuscule arrived in England in the second half of the 10th century. Its adoption there, replacing Insular script, was encouraged by the importation of continental European manuscripts by Saints Dunstan, Aethelwold, and Oswald, manuscript writing paper.

This script spread quite rapidly, being employed in many English centres for copying Latin texts. English scribes adapted the Carolingian script, manuscript writing paper, giving manuscript writing paper proportion and legibility.

It originated in southern Germany during the second half of the 12th century. This can be seen most notably in manuscript writing paper arm of the letter h. It has a hairline that tapers out by curving to the manuscript writing paper. When first read the German Protogothic h looks like the German Protogothic b. The coexistence in the Gothic period of formal hands employed for the copying of books and cursive scripts used for documentary purposes eventually resulted in cross-fertilization between these two fundamentally different writing styles.

Notably, scribes began to upgrade some of the cursive scripts. A script that has been thus formalized is known as a bastard script whereas a bookhand that has had cursive elements fused onto it is known as a hybrid script.

The advantage of such a script was that it could be written more quickly than a pure bookhand; it thus recommended itself to scribes in a period when demand for books was increasing and authors were tending to write longer texts.

In England during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, many books were written manuscript writing paper the script known as Bastard Anglicana. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Manuscript disambiguation. Main article: Illuminated manuscript. Retrieved 15 April Oxford English Dictionary 3rd ed. Oxford University Press. September


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manuscript writing paper


Oct 31,  · The sequence of writing should address the following core sections of the paper in the order from first to last: methods, results, discussion and introduction 31, 36, “Like every well-written story, a scientific manuscript should have a beginning (Introduction), middle (Materials and Methods), and an end (Results).Cited by: Manuscript Primary Writing Pad: Purple Green - Writing Journal Tablet For Kids - Write ABC's & First Words - Handwriting Practice - For Home & School [Classic] Handwriting without Tears Refill Kit for HWT Slate Chalkboard and Paper Practice (Refill, Manuscript & Cursive) $ $ 9. Get it as soon as Tomorrow, May In book, magazine, and music publishing, a manuscript is an original copy of a work written by an author or composer, which generally follows standardized typographic and formatting rules. (The staff paper commonly used for handwritten music is, for this reason, often called "manuscript paper").